National Science Foundation (NSF): Grants for Improving Doctoral Dissertation Research

Annual program to improve the quality of doctoral dissertation research by means of allowing candidates to greater creativity in gathering and analysis of data than would be otherwise possible.
Dissertation improvement awards are available only in certain disciplines, including the social and behavioral sciences and certain biological sciences. No dissertation improvement awards are made in the mathematical and physical sciences, the geosciences, engineering, cellular and molecular biology, or physiology.
Graduate students beginning to research their dissertation topics. No citizenship requirements. Women and minorities strongly encouraged to apply. Proposal must be submitted through dissertation advisor.
Payment for items such as travel to specialized facilities, sample survey costs, microfilms, payments to subjects, rental of environmental chambers, and other research facilities that cannot be provided by the university.
Deadlines differ between NSF's various divisions - check web page. 
APPLICATION: Each division that administers these grants treats applications in a different way. Doctoral students who wish to apply for a dissertation improvement grant should write directly to the appropriate research division(s).